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Answers for Parents about the COVID Vaccine for Children Ages 5-11

The recent news approving Pfizer’s vaccine for emergency use authorization for children ages 5-11 by the Centers of Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) may leave you with a lot of questions about what is best for your child.

Children’s of Alabama pediatricians Dr. Peily Soong and Dr. Gigi Youngblood have provided information that may help.  We asked the questions, and they provided these answers.

Why do we need to vaccinate children ages 5-11, and why is it so important to make sure they are vaccinated?

Dr. Youngblood: It’s definitely important to vaccinate children in this young age group. First and foremost, receiving vaccines are how we end this pandemic. They’re crucially important for everyone affected by the pandemic. We’re losing kids. There’s a significant portion of pediatric COVID deaths that were in the 5-11 age group. We’re also seeing long term issues with these young children, including multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS-C), which is a really potentially dangerous inflammatory condition that happens after someone has had COVID. Different body parts can become inflamed, and it often includes inflammation of the heart muscle or myocarditis. We feel children deserve protection from these things just as much as everyone else.

How is this vaccine different from the vaccine that may be offered to people 12 years of age and older?

Dr. Soong: It is different because it is a smaller vaccine dose, about a 1/3 of the dose given to the 12-year-old to adult group. The 12-year-old to adult dosage is 30-microgram. The smaller dose for children 5-11 years old is 10-microgram. Although it is a smaller dose, it has been shown to be just as effective in terms of antibody titers, which measures the antibodies in the blood. They compared the studies for the children in this younger age group to the older group, and the antibody levels were about the same in each. Researchers felt the dose should be just as effective at preventing COVID, and a very effective vaccine for all involved.

What are the potential side effects of the vaccine, and what should we know about them?

Dr. Youngblood: Clinical trials show that the vaccine is well tolerated in children. The potential side effects for younger children were fever, fatigue, headaches, and pain at the site of the injection as well as redness and swelling. These side effects are very similar to what we are seeing in adults, but probably even better tolerated in this young age group. We have also seen that the lower the vaccine dose, the lower the side effects, and about half as many children were getting side effects to the vaccine. It seems parents are most concerned about the side effect of getting myocarditis, which keeps making the news. Keep in mind that the only vaccine that’s going to be available for children 5-11 years old is the Pfizer BioNtech vaccine, and there has not really been an increased risk with that particular vaccine. The main thing to remember about any age group and post vaccination is even though people seem to be concerned about such things as clotting risk and myocarditis, people are at a significantly lower risk of these conditions than if they were to get the virus itself. Your child may feel a little under the weather for a day or two after the vaccine, but in terms of scary things, the vaccine there is less of a risk of developing long term side effects than taking a chance with getting COVID itself.

What is some good information for parents when making the decision to vaccinate their children, and staying healthy as we approach the holiday season?

Dr. Soong: We’re anticipating that there could be another surge of the Coronavirus as a result of holiday gatherings. Last year after holiday gatherings and through the winter months, we started seeing peaks in the spread of the virus. Children can easily spread COVID, and so it’s important to get them vaccinated to help protect, not only themselves, but others with weak immune system, the elderly, and those who are not vaccinated.

Getting the vaccine is of course a very important way of protecting your child against COVID-19, but as you’re going through the process of getting vaccinated, do parents need to take other measures, at least to a certain point in time?

Dr. Youngblood: Absolutely. When your child receives the vaccine, there are two doses of 10 micrograms given 21 days apart. It is obvious that those vaccinated do not have magical protection as soon as they receive the shots. You’re not going to reach the most effectiveness until you are fully vaccinated. The body has to build protection against the virus somewhere between one to two weeks after your child receives the second dose. This is why it’s so important that children begin the series as soon as possible before the holidays to prevent another pandemic peak. Until your child has reached that maximum effectiveness, they should continue to use a mask in social settings, and wash their hands constantly. We hope that all of us have developed the habit of washing hands as a result of this pandemic and that frequent hand washing will stay with us anyway. Also, if you or your child is not feeling well or family members are not feeling well, make sure you give full disclosure to those you love, and stay away from others until you know more about what’s going on with your child or with that loved one.

Where can people go for vaccinations?  As it becomes known that Children’s of Alabama and UAB are offering the vaccine to the 5-11 age group, are there also other places you would recommend for parents to take their children to receive the vaccine?

Dr. Soong: We are always the ones that you can trust, and we take care of your children. We are very knowledgeable and a viable resource to what has been going on through this whole pandemic. Keep in mind that a good choice is also your family pediatrician. Your pediatrician sees your child on a regular basis and offers other vaccinations as well, so it is always good to ask their opinion. They may also refer you to one of the nationwide pharmacies that will be offering it to children as well.

For the more information about COVID-19, visit childrensal.org.

Children's

Holiday Food Safety

During the holidays we love gathering with family and friends and enjoying great holiday meals. But it’s important to take precautions to prevent food poisoning. 


Becky Devore is a Nurse Educator with the Alabama Poison Information Center. She offers some helpful tips to make your holiday celebrations more enjoyable. Starting with the turkey, Devore says it’s not necessary to wash your turkey before cooking it. “Don’t wash your turkey, wash your hands,” she says. “The only thing that will take care of bacteria that might be in the turkey is to cook it to the proper temperature which is 165 degrees Fahrenheit.”


It’s important to use a meat thermometer when cooking a turkey. As Devore says, “You cannot tell if a turkey is done by the color. The color is not enough.”


Devore advises to plan your holiday feast several days in advance. If a turkey is frozen and needs to be thawed the best way to safely do so is in the refrigerator. “It takes 24 hours per 4-5 pounds of turkey to thaw in the refrigerator, so it may take several days,” she says.


Other tips include washing your hands throughout meal preparation. Before, during, and after handling all food. She also reminds home cooks to use different cutting boards and utensils for handling raw meat and all other foods. “Be sure to use only non-porous cutting boards made out of glass or plastic for raw meat,” she says.
After the meal is over, be mindful of your leftovers. Put everything away that needs to be refrigerated within two hours. Devore says leftovers should be kept in the refrigerator for 3-4 days. “If in doubt, throw it out!” she says.
The symptoms of food poisoning include:

  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Diarrhea
  • Abdominal pain
  • Fever

If you believe you or someone in your family has suffered from food poisoning or any other type of poisoning call the Alabama Poison Information Center toll free at 1-800-222-1222. A registered nurse or pharmacist will take your call and can advise you on the best response. Keep in mind that children, pregnant women, the elderly, or anyone in poor health is most at risk from food poisoning. 
This holiday season, keep these tips in mind to avoid food poisoning and focus on enjoying this time with friends and family.

Children's

Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

Ann Slattery is the Director of the Alabama Poison Information Center at Children’s of Alabama. She says it’s estimated that 500 people die from unintentional carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning every year. “Any time you have an appliance that uses natural gas, a kerosene heater or if there’s a garage attached to the home, or you have a fireplace you’re at risk for carbon monoxide poisoning. CO is produced when fuels like gasoline, propane, and kerosene are burned in an enclosed space or in areas without good air flow. CO does not occur naturally, it is a byproduct of combustion,” she says.

Slattery says the number of people who visit the emergency department due to carbon monoxide poisoning is very high. It’s estimated that 50,000 people a year are poisoned by carbon monoxide. Because it can be hard to detect and the symptoms vary and can mimic other illness such as a virus or food poisoning, one medical journal estimates the number to be as high as 200,000. 

Symptoms of Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

  1. Headache
  2. Weakness
  3. Dizziness
  4. Nausea or vomiting
  5. Shortness of breath
  6. Blurred vision
  7. Confusion
  8. Loss of consciousness

Carbon monoxide poisoning is called the silent killer because it is:

  1. Colorless
  2. Odorless
  3. Tasteless

Slattery says people often don’t realize dangerous levels of carbon monoxide are in the home. “It can make you drowsy,” she says. “Depending how high the levels are you can go to sleep. Or you may be asleep when the levels rise and not wake back up.” That’s why she strongly recommends carbon monoxide detectors throughout the home.

“If you have natural gas appliances, a garage, a kerosene heater or a fireplace you need a carbon monoxide detector,” she says. Slattery says homes should have multiple detectors in key locations. “You should have a carbon monoxide detector 10-15 feet away from the garage door, inside the home. There should be one 10-15 feet from the fireplace.  And there should be a carbon monoxide detector on each level of the home and outside the bedrooms.”

Locations of Carbon Monoxide Detectors in the Home

  1. 10-15 feet from garage
  2. 10-15 feet from fireplace
  3. On each level of the home
  4. Outside the bedrooms

If you believe someone has been exposed to dangerous levels of carbon monoxide, leave the area immediately and call 911 or visit the nearest emergency department. For more information about carbon monoxide poisoning contact the Alabama Poison Information Center at 1-800-222-1222.

Children's

COVID-19 Vaccine

With COVID-19 vaccine availability and eligibility now including individuals 5 and older, Children’s of Alabama (Children’s) is one of more than 100 pediatric hospitals across the U.S. administering the vaccine through the end of the year. Starting today, Nov. 10, the UAB Pediatric Primary Care Clinic at Children’s of Alabama will administer the vaccine to children and adolescents ages 5-18 on a limited, appointment-only basis, and parental consent is required. The clinic is not a mass vaccination site.  

Children’s recommends vaccination for everyone eligible. If possible, children should be vaccinated at their primary care physician’s (PCP) office, a local pharmacy or community vaccination site. The Children’s COVID vaccination clinic is available for children who do not have a PCP or ready access to a community site. 

Children’s is now providing vaccinations to qualified patients only in some of our outpatient clinics, designated primary care practices throughout the Birmingham area, and for inpatients as ordered by a physician. The UAB Pediatric Primary Care Clinic is the only Children’s site offering vaccinations to qualified children and adolescents who are not our patients.

While Children’s of Alabama (hospital) is not a mass vaccination site, eligible individuals may also receive the vaccine at any community site. For additional information or to find a site, visit https://www.alabamapublichealth.gov/covid19vaccine/index.html. To learn more about the Children’s of Alabama pediatric practices offering the vaccine exclusively to their eligible patients, visit https://www.childrensal.org/practices 

WHERE:

UAB Pediatric Primary Care Clinic at Children’s of Alabama
1601 4th Avenue South
Children’s Park Place Clinic
Suite G60 (Ground floor)
Birmingham, AL 35233
Free parking available in the Children’s Park Place parking deck with entrances on 5th Avenue South at 16th and 17th Streets.

WHEN: Monday-Friday, 8 a.m. to 5 p.m.

WHO: Children and adolescents ages 5 to 18

DETAILS:

·         Vaccinations at the clinic are available by appointment only by visiting https://childrensal-iszsn.formstack.com/forms/appointmentrequest_vaccine

·         A limited number of appointments will be available each day.

·         Vaccinations at the clinic are available only to children ages 5 to 18, not to parents or adult siblings.

.         Parental consent is required.

.         The vaccine is FREE at all locations.

·         All visitors at Children’s of Alabama are screened for COVID-19 symptoms and those 2 and older should arrive wearing a mask.  Those who are experiencing symptoms of flu, coronavirus or any other contagious illness should not visit Children’s. In addition, those who have had direct exposure to COVID-19 or have traveled to a high-risk area should not visit Children’s.

Children's, Health and Safety

Is it the Flu or COVID-19?

The past year and a half has brought a lot of uncertainty during a global pandemic with fears of COVID-19. Now, as we enter cold and flu season, medical professionals are even more concerned. Delphene Noland is the manager of Infection Prevention and Control at Children’s of Alabama. She’s concerned that families, already fatigued from the pandemic, may let their guard down this flu season. “I think my biggest concern is that people become lax and forget that the flu is a real threat to our community,” she said.

There’s hope that the measures already being taken to respond to COVID-19 may help mitigate the flu. Masks, social distancing and hand washing are all helpful in limiting the spread of both coronavirus and the flu. But the increase in positive COVID-19 cases statewide shows those efforts are not enough to stop transmission entirely. That’s why Noland says it’s critical to get the flu shot this year. “It is of the utmost importance to get your flu shot,” she said. “They are available now. Make it a family event and get everyone vaccinated for the flu.”

How can parents recognize the difference between the flu and coronavirus? What complicates matters is that their symptoms are so similar. “Loss of taste and smell is hallmark COVID-19,” Noland says. “Shortness of breath, is usually seen later in the flu process if the patient gets pneumonia as a complication. But shortness of breath can be seen early on in patients with COVID-19.”

Symptoms Unique to COVID-19:

–             Loss of taste and smell

–             Shortness of breath in early stages

 Symptoms of Both COVID-19 and the Flu:

–             Cough

–             Runny nose

–             Sore throat

–             Fatigue

–             Fever

–             Nausea, Vomiting

And if your child is sick, seek guidance from your pediatrician or primary care provider. “Your pediatrician is your source of truth,” Noland said. 

Children's, Health and Safety

FAQS: 2021-2022 FLU, RESPIRATORY ILLNESS SEASON

Flu

Q: What is influenza or flu?

A: Influenza (also known as the flu) is an infection of the respiratory tract. It is caused by a virus that spreads easily from person to person.  It spreads when people cough or sneeze out droplets that are infected with the virus and other people breathe them in. The droplets also can land on things like doorknobs or shopping carts, infecting people who touch these things.

Q: Is flu contagious?

A: The flu is very contagious. People can spread it from a day before they feel sick until their symptoms are gone. This is about one week for adults, but it can be longer for young children.

Q: How will I know if my child has flu and not just a cold?

A: The fall and winter months are cold and flu season. Both the cold and the flu can present similar symptoms, including cough, congestion and runny nose. In general, the flu hits a lot harder and quicker than a cold. When people have the flu, they usually feel worse than they do with a cold. Most people start to feel sick about two days after they come in contact with the flu virus.

Q: What are some symptoms of flu?

A: Common symptoms of the flu include:

  • Fever or feeling feverish with chills, though not all people with the flu will have a fever
  • Cough
  • Sore throat
  • Runny or stuffy nose
  • Muscle or body aches
  • Headaches
  • Fatigue
  • Vomiting and diarrhea, which are more common in children

Q: When should we get this season’s flu vaccine?

A: Flu season in the United States is from October to May. Vaccines are provided at most pediatricians’ offices. The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommends the flu shot for everyone over 6 months old.

Q: What is the treatment for flu?

A: Most children with flu get better at home. In the event a child does get sick, you can help mitigate symptoms. Make sure your child is drinking plenty of fluids. You can give appropriate doses of acetaminophen or ibuprofen to relieve fever and aches, and make sure they are getting plenty of rest.

Q: When should I seek medical treatment for my child if I suspect flu?

A: Bring your child to the doctor if you’re concerned about severe symptoms. Most of the time parents can care for their children with plenty of rest, fluids and extra comfort. Some children are more likely to have problems when they get the flu, including:

  • children up to the age of 5, especially babies
  • children and teens whose immune system is weakened from medicines or illnesses
  • children and teens with chronic (long-term) medical conditions, such as asthma or diabetes

Q: In addition to the flu vaccine, how else can we stay healthy during cold and flu season?

A:  The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommends the flu shot for everyone over 6 months old. Here are some other tips for staying healthy during cold and flu season:

  • Cover your cough and sneeze
  • Wash your hands
  • Clean living and working areas
  • Avoid crowds
  • Stay home from work or school if you are sick
  • Avoid touching your eyes, nose, and mouth

Q: How can we prevent the spread of germs in our house if my child is sick?

A: The flu virus spreads when people cough or sneeze out droplets that are infected with the virus and other people breathe them in. The droplets also can land on things like doorknobs or shopping carts, infecting people who touch these things.

Teaching children the importance of hand washing is the best way to stop germs from causing sickness. It’s especially important after coughing or nose blowing, after using the bathroom and before preparing or eating food.

There’s a right way to wash hands, too. Use warm water and plenty of soap, then rub your hands together vigorously for at least 20 seconds (away from the water). Children can sing a short song — try “Happy Birthday” — during the process to make sure they spend enough time washing. Rinse your hands and finish by drying them well on a clean towel. Hand sanitizer can be a good way for children to kill germs on their hands when soap and water aren’t available.

Cleaning household surfaces well is also important. Wipe down frequently handled objects around the house, such as toys, doorknobs, light switches, sink fixtures, and flushing handles on the toilets.

Soap and water are perfectly fine for cleaning. If you want something stronger, you can try an antibacterial cleanser. It may not kill all the germs that can lead to sickness, but it can reduce the amount of bacteria on an object.

It’s generally safe to use any cleaning agent that’s sold in stores but try to avoid using multiple cleaning agents or chemical sprays on a single object because the mix of chemicals can irritate skin and eyes.

Q: If my child has had flu, when can he return to school, child care, etc.?

A: Children with the flu should stay home from school and childcare until they feel better. They should only go back when they have been fever-free for at least 24 hours without using a fever-reducing medicine. Some children need to stay home longer. Ask the doctor what’s best for your child.

Q: How do I know if my child’s symptoms are flu or COVID-19?

A: The symptoms between these two viral illnesses can be similar, making it difficult to distinguish between the two based on symptoms alone. Diagnostic testing can help determine if you are sick with the flu or COVID-19. A phone call to the child’s pediatrician or primary care provider will help determine next steps regarding testing for flu and/or COVID-19.

Q: Do COVID-19 symptoms develop like flu symptoms?

A: If a person has COVID-19, it could take them longer to develop symptoms than if they had flu. According to the CDC, symptoms may appear two to 14 days after exposure to the virus. People with these symptoms may have COVID-19:

  • Fever or chills
  • Cough
  • Shortness of breath or difficulty breathing
  • Fatigue
  • Muscle or body aches
  • Headache
  • New loss of taste or smell
  • Sore throat
  • Congestion or runny nose
  • Nausea or vomiting
  • Diarrhea
Children's

Masking in Schools

With the dramatic rise in the COVID-19 Delta variant in Alabama, especially among children and adolescents, Children’s Hospital of Alabama (Children’s of Alabama) strongly recommends the following to help keep our children safe from the spread of the virus as they return to school and school activities:  

  • Masking for students in the in-person school setting, regardless of vaccination status
  • All others, especially unvaccinated adults, should wear masks inside buildings at all times, especially around children under 12 years of age, who are not yet eligible for vaccination.
  • Full vaccination for all those who are 12 and older
  • Avoid large crowds and socially distance to the extent possible
  • Handwashing and/or the use of hand sanitizer

While each school district must decide the best ways to safeguard its students, Children’s of Alabama firmly believes that masking, social distancing and vaccination are most effective in preventing the spread of the virus.

These steps will help to keep Alabama’s children in school, learning and healthy.

Children's

Safe Summer Camping

Pitching a tent, hiking a new trail and roasting s’mores all make up a perfect summer day. Now that summer is in full swing, it is a great time to get outside with your family to camp and hike. Spending time with your kids is important and fun summer activities create memories that last. 

Before you head out on your next camping trip, it is important to understand and identify wildlife that could be potentially dangerous to your family. When camping and hiking, be cognizant of ticks, venomous snakes and poisonous plants. These dangers could turn into a trip to the emergency room. 

Ticks

Ticks are small parasitic insects that are found in bushy areas with tall grass and leaf litter. Although they are miniscule in size, their bite can be dangerous. Ticks carry diseases, including Lyme disease, which is the most common tick-born disease in the United States. But don’t panic because your child’s risk of developing Lyme disease is very low here in Alabama.

“Although Lyme disease is the most common tick-borne disease in the U.S., it is not in Alabama,” said Ann Slattery, director of the Alabama Poison Information Center. “Spotted FeverRickettsiosis is the most common tick-borne disease in Alabama.”

To keep ticks away while camping and hiking:

• Wear closed-toed shoes or boots, long-sleeved shirts and pants

• Tuck pant legs into socks or shoes for extra protection

• Pull long hair back or wear a hat

• Stay on trail

• Use insect repellent with 20% to 30% DEET and always follow the directions for use carefully

Be sure to check your family for ticks each day of your camping trip. Look in these areas particularly: behind the ears, around the groin, behind the knees and under the arms. If you find a tick, remove it immediately. 

Venomous Snakes

Most snakes in North America are not venomous. However, a bite from a venomous snake could be life threatening for children and adults. Keep an eye out for these six venomous snakes in Alabama: 

• Timber Rattlesnake

• Pigmy Rattlesnake

• Eastern Diamondback Rattlesnake

• Copperhead

• Cottonmouth 

• Eastern Coral Snake

Most snakes do their best to avoid people. They will only bite if they feel threatened, surprised or concerned. If your family sees a snake, leave it be and stay away from it. 

If your child is bitten by a venomous snake, Slattery recommends to:

• Immediately go to the closest emergency department

• Remove rings and any constrictive items

• Don’t apply a tourniquet

• Don’t apply ice

• Don’t attempt to cut the area or suck out the venom

• Keep your child calm and warm

Poisonous Plants

Poisonous plants like poison ivy linger around wooded areas and even your own backyard. Poison ivy can be hard to identify because it is often mixed in with other plants. The plant has three leaves on one stem. Remind your kids of the saying, “leaves of three, let them be.”

If you’ve encountered poison ivy before, you know that it causesan itchy, red rash. The “poison” in poison ivy comes from the plant’s colorless, odorless oil, urushiol. Surprisingly, urushiol is not poisonous, but an allergen. Most people who touch it get an allergic reaction. To avoid getting a rash, wear long clothes in areas where poison ivy may grow. And if your kids touch the plant or oil from the plant, wash their skin right away with plenty of soap and water. 

“There is an influx of plant exposures reported to the Alabama Poison Information Center over the summer,” said Slattery. “Fortunately, more than 90 percent of these we treat and are observed at home.”

If your family finds themselves in a predicament this summerwith bites, stings and rashes, call 1-800-222-1222 to reach the Alabama Poison Information Center at Children’s of Alabama. It is a 24/7 hotline offering free and confidential poison information and treatment recommendations. To learn more about the Alabama Poison Information Center visit https://www.childrensal.org/apic

Here’s to a safe and fun summer!

Children's, Health and Safety

Fireworks Displays Can Be Dangerous When Not Left to Professionals

Fireworks are synonymous with the 4th of July holiday. With some communities across the country canceling their professional displays this year because of social distancing concerns, there could be an increase in the personal use of fireworks, along with a potential for increased injuries.

The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) continues to urge families not to buy fireworks for their own or their children’s use, as thousands of people, most often children and teens, are injured each year while using consumer fireworks.

Sue Rowe, a charge nurse in the Burn Center at Children’s of Alabama, has advice for those who choose to use their own fireworks this 4th of July.

Her number one fireworks safety rule? “Never leave children unattended around fireworks.”

If you are using fireworks on your own, only use them with adult supervision. Keep children at a safe distance from lit fireworks. She also suggests keeping a bucket of water nearby. Store fireworks in a safe place, outside the main living area, such as in a garage or storage area, out of a child’s sight and reach.

And while sparklers may seem like a safe alternative to large, showy displays, they can be just as dangerous. “The tip of a sparkler produces a significant amount of intense heat,” Rowe said. The AAP reports that sparklers can reach above 1,800 degrees Fahrenheit – hot enough to melt some metals.

However, accidents do happen, and Rowe offers tips if your child is burned with a firework. “The first thing is to immediately apply cool water to the burn site.” She cautions against ice packs, though. For home care, “apply a topical antibiotic ointment to the affected area.” If the burn is significant, a trip to the closest emergency department is advised.

Each year, more than 300 children are admitted to the Burn Center at Children’s of Alabama, the only designated pediatric burn center in the state and one of the largest in the southeast. A specially trained team of pediatric surgeons, registered nurses, physical and occupational therapists, social workers, child life therapists, teachers, pastoral care staff, nutritionists and burn technicians work together to form a cohesive team of professionals dedicated to treating children with burn injuries. The Children’s of Alabama Burn Center is a six-bed specialty unit designed to care for the needs of burn patients ages birth to teenagers. On an outpatient basis, the Burn Clinic treats more than 900 patients every year. For more information, visit www.childrensal.org/BurnCenter.

Children's

Summer Reading

Reading is fundamental. It affects all areas of a child’s success. And summertime is a great time to make reading a priority. Dr. Amy McCollum is a pediatrician at Midtown Pediatrics in Birmingham. She says it is important for parents to help encourage strong reading habits in their child and she says, that begins at birth. “I would really encourage parents from birth to start reading to their baby,” she says. “Holding your child and reading a book together is going to have these great associations of attachment and connection. Your voice, which is the most comforting voice, is going to be what they hear.”

As the child gets older, Dr. McCollum says parents should encourage their child to choose what books they want to read. And she adds, don’t worry if they stick with the same theme, or want to read the same book over and over; they’re still reading.

Make library visits a regular part of your summer. Dr. McCollum says, if you are able, choose one day a week that is a library day. “Talk to the librarian, let them suggest books the child might like,” she says. “Check out books on a regular basis and sign up for summer reading programs at the library.”

Again, Dr. McCollum says, as the child gets older, continue to let them choose the books they are interested in. “I think sticking with the topic of letting them choose what they’re interested in is important,” she says. “For instance, if your son only wants to read graphic novels instead of chapter books, that’s fine if that’s what he enjoys.”

As kids get older, encouraging good reading habits can be challenging, as video games and devices serve as constant distractions. Dr. McCollum knows this firsthand, “We just have to fight to fight. In my family 30 minutes of reading gets you 30 minutes of video game time,” she says.

And parents should ask themselves, am I modeling good reading habits to my child, or am I spending my free time on a device? By putting forth a little bit of effort and intentionality, any child can become a reader.