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bronc pic


Bronchiolitis is a lung infection that can be common in young children and infants. It causes bronchioles (small airways in the lung) to get inflamed and congested. The sickness is usually caused by a virus, which infects the smallest airways in the lungs. The bronchioles become inflamed and produce mucus, which causes difficulty breathing.  It is most common during winter months. The symptoms begin like a cold and then progress to wheezing, coughing, and difficulty breathing. Symptoms can last a few weeks to a month. Normally, children can heal at home without requiring hospitalization.


  • Coughing
  • Runny nose
  • Stuffy nose
  • Low grade fever
  • Difficulty breathing
  • Whistling noise when the child breathes



Most cases of bronchiolitis are caused by the by Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV). RSV is very common and infects almost every child by the age of 2. Outbreaks of the virus occur every winter. The virus can be spread easily through droplets in the air when someone with RSV coughs, sneezes, or talks. It can also be spread by touching shared objects such as door handles, toys or utensils and then touching your eyes, nose, or mouth.


Risk Factors

Infants younger than the age of 3 are at the greatest risk of getting RSV because their immune systems are not fully developed.

Other factors include:

  • A depressed immune system
  • A child with a heart or lung condition
  • Exposure to tobacco smoke
  • Contact with multiple children
  • Siblings who attend school



When to see a doctor

Call the doctor if your child has the following symptoms:

  • Difficulty eating, swallowing, or drinking
  • Breathing becomes rapid and shallow
  • Vomiting
  • Skin turns pale
  • Sluggish appearance

Call 911 or take your child to the nearest emergency room if your child has the following symptoms:

  • Respiratory distress
  • Lethargic appearance
  • Skin turns blue


Prevention and Treatment

The best prevention for bronchiolitis is washing your hands frequently; especially before touching a child when you’ve had a respiratory illness. If your child has bronchiolitis, keep them home until they are well to prevent the spreading of the infection.

More prevention tips: Don’t allow children to share drinking glasses or utensils with others, teach children to cover their coughs and sneezes and Disinfect surfaces in your home.

Vaccines and Medication

There are no vaccines for the most common forms of RSV, but an annual flu shot is recommended for everyone over 6 months old.



Whoop image.jpg

Cold and flu are not the only illnesses that may be approaching this fall and winter. Outbreaks of Pertussis, better known as ‘whooping cough,’ also occur more often during cold and flu season. Pertussis is a highly contagious respiratory illness caused by the spread of a bacteria called Bordetella pertussis. Pertussis causes swelling of the airways, leading to a violent “whoop sounding” cough.   This cough has been known to last up to 10 weeks or more. Although pertussis can affect people of all ages, it can be life-threatening for infants. According to the Centers for Disease Control, children are at a greater risk of getting pertussis. About 50% of children under the age of 1 infected with pertussis require hospitalization. The best way to prevent Pertussis is to get the DTaP (Diphtheria, Tetanus, Pertussis) vaccine.

Signs and Symptoms

In the early stages, pertussis may appear to be a common cold. Symptoms may include:

  • Runny nose
  • Low-grade fever
  • Occasional cough
  • Pauses in breathing (in infants)

Symptoms after having Pertussis for 1-2 weeks may include:

  • Multiple rapid coughs followed by a high-pitched “whoop” sound. This cough often occurs at night.
  • Vomiting during or after coughing
  • Exhaustion after coughing


  • Use tissues to cover the mouth and nose when sneezing or coughing.
  • Throw away tissues after use.
  • Cough and sneeze into your upper sleeve or bend of the elbow to help keep the hands clean.
  • Wash hands with soap and water for at least 20 seconds
  • Use hand sanitizer throughout the day
  • Vaccinate your child.  9 out of 10 children are fully protected from the virus after receiving the vaccine.
  • DTaP (Diphtheria, Tetanus, Pertussis) vaccine for babies and children
  • TDaP (Tetanus, Diphtheria, Pertussis) booster shot for preteens, teens, and adults
  • Pregnant women may receive the TDaP vaccine between 27-36 weeks of pregnancy.

For more information about vaccinations regarding pertussis and other diseases, please visit

To schedule your appointment for pertussis vaccination, please visit




Psychiatric Intake Response Center (PIRC)

Navigating the mental health care system is challenging for patients, families and providers. A new resource based at Children’s of Alabama helps to bridge this gap for parents. The Psychiatric Intake Response Center (PIRC) is a collaboration between Children’s of Alabama and the Anne B. LaRussa Foundation for Hope.


PIRC Director Cindy Jones says “PIRC provides resources to any adult caller and we have more than 1,300 resources in the state of Alabama.”


The PIRC is only one of three of its kind in the country. When a parent has concerns about their child, they are able to call PIRC confidentially. Licensed mental health clinicians trained to assess a child or teen’s emotional and behavioral needs answer the calls. “If someone calls the PIRC, we are able to briefly assess the situation and point them in the direction of resources in the community,” Jones says. PIRC does not provide over the phone diagnoses.


Jones says parents should watch for signs of mental distress:

  • Isolating themselves
  • Changes in eating habits
  • Weight changes
  • Changes in sleeping habits
  • Mood swings

Children and teens shouldn’t suffer alone. There are hundreds of resources available in the state of Alabama to help families navigate through difficult situations and offer them support.


PIRC is open seven days a week from 8 a.m. to 11 p.m. Any adult with a mental health question or concern regarding their child is encouraged to call 205-638-7472. In the event of a crisis situation, call 911 or go to the nearest emergency room.


World Thrombosis Day

thrombosisThrombosis or blood clot does not occur often in children. However, a hospitalized child has a much higher chance of developing a blood clot, mainly due to the use of a small soft tube (central venous catheter) that is inserted into a vein to give medicines, nutrients, blood products, or fluids.

The Pediatric Thrombosis Program at Children’s provides comprehensive care to children who have blood clots. Our team includes physicians, pharmacists, nurse practitioners, nurses, school liaisons, social workers, child life specialists and other health care professionals committed to the care of infants, children and young adults affected by blood clots.

Q: What is a blood clot?

A: A blood clot forms when blood becomes solid rather than liquid. Blood clots happen mostly in veins or blood vessels that carry blood back to your heart from the rest of your body, but can happen in arteries too. Some common places for blood clots to form are arms, legs and lungs.

Q: What are symptoms of a blood clot?

A: Symptoms are different for each person and depend on where the blood clot is. If a blood clot is in your arm or legs (known as deep vein thrombosis or DVT), you may have pain at the site along with redness and/or swelling of affected area. If a blood clot forms in your lungs (known as pulmonary embolism or PE), you may have sudden chest pain that is worse when you take a deep breath. You may also feel short of breath and may cough up blood.

Q: What are causes of blood clots?

A: Anyone can get a blood clot.  Many things can make you more likely to have a clot. The most common risk factor in children is the use of a central venous catheter. Some other common risk factors include:

  • Increased estrogen (steroid hormones in the body)
    • Birth control (pills, patches, rings)
    • Pregnancy
    • Estrogen hormone therapy
  • Medical conditions
    • Cancer
    • Inflammatory conditions such as lupus, sickle cell disease and inflammatory bowel disease
  • Other
    • Obesity
    • Smoking
    • A family history of blood clots
  • Immobility
    • Hospitalization
    • Sitting too long (long car or plane rides)
  • Surgery/Trauma
    • Major surgery (hip, abdomen, knee)
    • Broken bone

Q: How are blood clots diagnosed?

A: When a blood clot is suspected, your doctor will start with a medical history and physical exam. Then imaging studies may be done to confirm there is a blood clot. The most commonly used imaging to diagnose DVT is a Doppler ultrasound. CT scan is the test of choice to diagnose a PE.

Q: How are blood clots treated?

A: The main treatment for blood clots is anticoagulant medication  or blood thinners. Blood thinners may be given as a pill by mouth, a shot into the skin or through a shot into a vein.  Your doctor will decide how long you need to be treated depending on why you developed a clot in the first place.

The goals of these medicines are:

  • To keep the clot from getting bigger
  • To stop the clot from breaking and going to other parts of your body (lungs/brain).
  • To stop a new clot from forming
  • To decrease long term effects of having a clot


For more information about our Pediatric Thrombosis Program, services we offer and conditions we treat, visit

Health and Safety

FAQS: 2019-2020 FLU SEASON

Q: What is influenza or flu?

A: Influenza (also known as the flu) is an infection of the respiratory tract. It is caused by a virus that spreads easily from person to person.  It spreads when people cough or sneeze out droplets that are infected with the virus and other people breathe them in. The droplets also can land on things like doorknobs or shopping carts, infecting people who touch these things.

Q: Is flu contagious?

A: The flu is very contagious. People can spread it from a day before they feel sick until their symptoms are gone. This is about one week for adults, but it can be longer for young children.

Q: How will I know if my child has flu and not just a cold?

A: The fall and winter months are cold and flu season. Both the cold and the flu can present similar symptoms, including cough, congestion and runny nose. In general, the flu hits a lot harder and quicker than a cold. When people have the flu, they usually feel worse than they do with a cold. Most people start to feel sick about two days after they come in contact with the flu virus.

Flu symptoms include:

  • fever
  • chills
  • headache
  • muscle or body aches
  • dizziness
  • loss of appetite
  • tiredness or fatigue
  • cough
  • sore throat
  • runny or stuffy nose
  • nausea or vomiting
  • weakness
  • ear pain
  • diarrhea or vomiting, ( more common in children than adults)

Q: Is it too late for my child to get this season’s flu vaccine?

A: There’s still time to get a flu vaccine this season. Flu season in the United States is from October to May. Vaccines are provided at most pediatricians’ offices. The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommends the flu shot for everyone over 6 months old.

Q: What is the treatment for flu?

A: Most children with flu get better at home. In the event a child does get sick, you can help mitigate symptoms. Make sure your child is drinking plenty of fluids. You can give appropriate doses of acetaminophen or ibuprofen to relieve fever and aches, and make sure they are getting plenty of rest.

Q: When should I seek medical treatment for my child if I suspect flu?

A: Bring your child to the doctor if you’re concerned about severe symptoms. Most of the time parents can care for their children with plenty of rest, fluids and extra comfort. Some children are more likely to have problems when they get the flu, including:

  • children up to the age of 5, especially babies
  • children and teens whose immune system is weakened from medicines or illnesses
  • children and teens with chronic (long-term) medical conditions, such as asthma or diabetes

Q: In addition to the flu vaccine, how else can we stay healthy during cold and flu season?

A:  The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommends the flu shot for everyone over 6 months old. Here are some other tips for staying healthy during cold and flu season:

  • Cover your cough and sneeze
  • Wash your hands
  • Clean living and working areas
  • Avoid crowds
  • Stay home from work or school if you are sick
  • Avoid touching your eyes, nose, and mouth

Q: How can we prevent the spread of germs in our house if my child is sick?

A: The flu virus spreads when people cough or sneeze out droplets that are infected with the virus and other people breathe them in. The droplets also can land on things like doorknobs or shopping carts, infecting people who touch these things.

Teaching children the importance of hand washing is the best way to stop germs from causing sickness. It’s especially important after coughing or nose blowing, after using the bathroom and before preparing or eating food.

There’s a right way to wash hands, too. Use warm water and plenty of soap, then rub your hands together vigorously for at least 15 seconds (away from the water). Children can sing a short song — try “Happy Birthday” — during the process to make sure they spend enough time washing. Rinse your hands and finish by drying them well on a clean towel. Hand sanitizer can be a good way for children to kill germs on their hands when soap and water aren’t available.

Cleaning household surfaces well is also important. Wipe down frequently handled objects around the house, such as toys, doorknobs, light switches, sink fixtures, and flushing handles on the toilets.

Soap and water are perfectly fine for cleaning. If you want something stronger, you can try an antibacterial cleanser. It may not kill all the germs that can lead to sickness, but it can reduce the amount of bacteria on an object.

It’s generally safe to use any cleaning agent that’s sold in stores but try to avoid using multiple cleaning agents or chemical sprays on a single object because the mix of chemicals can irritate skin and eyes.

Q: If my child has had flu, when can he return to school, child care, etc.?

A: Children with the flu should stay home from school and childcare until they feel better. They should only go back when they have been fever-free for at least 24 hours without using a fever-reducing medicine. Some children need to stay home longer. Ask the doctor what’s best for your child.

Find more information and resources at

Children's, Health and Safety

Poison Purse

There are many poison dangers that parents of small children need to be aware of, from the cleaning products found in the kitchen to medicine stored in a bathroom. But there’s a hidden danger you may not have considered. How many poisonous items can be found in your purse or the purses of any guests in your home? Ann Slattery is the Director of the Regional Poison Control Center at Children’s of Alabama. She says a woman’s purse can contain any number of poison dangers. “When people come into your home they may bring things that are harmful to your child in their pocketbook,” she says.

Some examples of dangerous items often kept in purses:

A non-childproof pill container: It could contain medications that are dangerous to a small child like heart medicine, an iron tablet, or a painkiller.

Toothpaste: May cause an upset stomach and possible fluoride poisoning.

Eye drops:  Especially the ones that remove redness could lower heart rate and blood pressure.

Hand sanitizer, hair spray, perfume: All contain alcohol and can cause intoxication, including the risk of respiratory arrest and death

Button batteries: Can get lodged and burn through the esophagus quickly

Hand lotion, nail polish, lipstick: All can be irritating to the stomach and potentially dangerous

Slattery says the dangers are especially present when small children five and under are the in home. She advises placing purses and bags, including your guests’ bags away. “For children five and under this would be something we would worry about, just keep it out of sight, out of reach,” she says. Likewise be mindful of the contents in your purse when you visit someone else’s home with small children.

If you suspect your child has ingested something poisonous, call the Regional Poison Control Center at 1-800-222-1222. The service is free and confidential, and health care providers are available to take calls 24 hours a day, seven days a week.



Children's, Health and Safety

Heat Illness

HeatExhaustion.jpgThe heat index in Alabama is expected to be very high at greater than 95 degrees over the next several days.  Dr. Hannah Gardner says, “kids are at risk for heat cramps, heat exhaustion and heat stroke if they play outside or have athletic practices in this hot, humid weather. It’s important for parents and coaches to be aware of the signs and symptoms of heat illness.”

Signs and Symptoms

Of heat exhaustion:

  • increased thirst
  • weakness and extreme tiredness
  • fainting
  • muscle cramps
  • nausea and vomiting
  • irritability
  • headache
  • increased sweating
  • cool, clammy skin
  • body temperature rises, but to less than 105°F (40.5°C)

Of heatstroke:

  • severe headache
  • weakness, dizziness
  • confusion
  • fast breathing and heartbeat
  • loss of consciousness (passing out)
  • seizures
  • little or no sweating
  • flushed, hot, dry skin
  • body temperature rises to 105°F (40.5°C) or higher

What to Do

If your child has symptoms of heatstroke, get emergency medical care immediately.

For cases of heat exhaustion or while awaiting help for a child with possible heatstroke:

  • Bring the child indoors or into the shade immediately.
  • Undress the child.
  • Have the child lie down; raise the feet slightly.
  • If the child is alert, place in a lukewarm bath or spray with lukewarm water.
  • If the child is alert and coherent, give frequent sips of cool, clear fluids.
  • If the child is vomiting, turn onto his or her side to prevent choking.

To help protect kids from heat illness

  • Teach kids to always drink plenty of liquids before and during activity in hot, sunny weather — even if they’re not thirsty.
  • Kids should wear light-colored, loose clothing on hot days and use sunscreen when outdoors.
  • On hot or humid days, limit outdoor activity during the hottest parts of the day.
  • Teach kids to come indoors, rest and hydrate right away whenever they feel overheated
Children's, Health and Safety

Preparing your child for Surgery

Has your child’s doctor said he or she will need to have surgery? This can be a scary time for the child and parent. But there are some things you can do to help ease your child’s anxiety and ensure a smoother experience.

Laura Lovell is a Child Life Specialist at Children’s of Alabama. She says the most important recommendation is to be honest with your child. “We encourage you to be honest with your child,”Lovell says. “We have a lot of families come in and the first thing they say is, ‘We didn’t tell them why we’re here.’This adds a lot of stress in addition to being in an unfamiliar environment.”Lovell says a lot of the anxiety can be lessened by talking with your child in advance about what they can expect.

Lovell recommends parents have honest conversations that are age appropriate for the child. For a younger child, she recommends looking for toys that are similar to what the child would see in the hospital. Most toy stores have doctor’s office toys that may include items like a stethoscope or a blood pressure cuff. Lovell encourages parents to engage younger children in role play, or encourage the child to play “doctor”with a stuffed animal.

Lovell also recommends a child bring a comfort item with them the day of surgery. “We do encourage them to bring something of comfort with them, whether that’s a blanket, or a stuffed animal or a toy, something they can have as they’re going back to the operating room and waking up in recovery,”she says.

Older children and teens can benefit from special attention as well. When preparing a teenager for surgery, Lovell says older kids can typically benefit from a little more detail. “We encourage the teens to ask questions,”she says. She adds that teens may want to bring an item of comfort too like a favorite blanket.

Children’s of Alabama and all pediatric facilities are especially geared to respond to the needs of children. “We cater to children, we have an amazing staff that will go through and explain everything to the child,”Lovell says. “We give them opportunities like choosing a flavor for their mask. There are choices they can make so they feel empowered to be part of their care.” If a child is especially anxious prior to surgery, parents can schedule a pre-surgery tour. Lovell recommends contacting the child’s pediatrician to request that tour through the Child Life Department.


Back to School Tips for Teens and Tweens


Back-to-school season is an exciting time for children and teens. As teens prepare to take harder classes and return to sports, here are some tips to make the back-to-school transition as easy as possible.


Teen Driving

The leading cause of death in teens is by car accidents. Fortunately, most of these accidents can be prevented. The list of guidelines below can help lower the chance of accidents behind the wheel.


  • No cellphones– using cellphones while driving is the leading cause of accidents with teen drivers. Texting and driving should never occur, and in many states is illegal. Teens should also know that even touching their phone while driving can put them at an increased risk.  Encourage safe driving by having strict guidelines regarding cell phone use and being a good role model by not using your phone behind the wheel.


  • Seatbelts– Using a seatbelt is the best way to increase your chance of surviving a motor vehicle crash. Seatbelts should be worn by all passengers, at all times, with no exceptions.


  • Distracted driving– First-time drivers can be easily distracted by using cellphones, eating while driving, listening to loud music and having friends in the car. Teens should not have passengers present in the car for the first 6 months after getting a license. They should also have volume limits for the radio and eat before getting behind the wheel.


Stress/Mental Health

While back to school time creates excitement for most students, the thought of advanced classes and standardized tests can create excess stress for teens. Try these tips to manage your teen’s stress levels.


  • Extracurricular Activities– Make sure your child has a reasonable schedule outside of school. Dance, sports, music and other activities tend to require a bigger time commitment as kids get older. Sticking to a few after school activities will ensure that your child does not add to his/her stress level.


  • Asking for help– middle school and high school can be tough. Teaching your child that it is normal to feel overwhelmed will make him/her more comfortable in asking for help.


  • Know when stress is serious– while certain levels of stress in children and teens is normal, some behaviors could indicate that your child might need help. If you notice that your child is not sleeping enough, is having anxiety or depression or is harming themselves, contact a counselor or mental health practitioner immediately.


Healthy Lunches

Your child may be packing a lunch or eating in the school cafeteria. Either way, they have more freedom to decide what they want to eat. Encourage them to make healthy decisions by:


  • Preparing healthy dinners with leftovers for school lunches– packing leftovers from favorite, nutritious dinners will allow them to eat a healthy lunch instead of grabbing something quick and unhealthy.


  • Having healthy groceries on hand– stock the fridge with fruits and vegetables instead of sugary snacks to give your child something wholesome to eat. Take grocery shopping requests from your child for healthy snack options.


  • Review the menu with your child– if your child is eating lunch in the school cafeteria, check out your school’s website to see the posted lunchroom menu. Planning with your child what they will eat everyday will prepare them to make good decisions before they step foot into the cafeteria.


Caffeine Use

Though the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has not set guidelines for safe caffeine consumption for children, the American Academy of Pediatrics discourages caffeine use for children and adolescents. If you allow your child to occasionally drink caffeine, make sure he or she is getting enough sleep, making good grades and is not having anxiety and jitters.


E Cigarettes/Vaping

E-cigarette use among teens is on the rise, and studies show that teens often “vape” or “JUUL” (E-cigarette brand, pronounced jewel) on school grounds. This type of behavior usually happens in bathrooms, and may even occur in the classroom. Exposure to nicotine can harm brain development, in addition to raising the risk of future cigarette and drug use. Be sure your teen is ready to say “no” to the peer pressures of vaping by educating him/her on the dangers of nicotine use.


OPT IN for scoliosis screening

Schools play a vital role in early scoliosis detection. Alabama public schools offer free yearly scoliosis screening for students in the 5th through 9th grades (ages 11-14). Beginning in the 2019-2020 school year, students must return a signed parent permission slip to be screened. Ensure that your child is screened for scoliosis by signing the permission slip provided to your child.


Back to School Tips for Kids


‘BTS’ means ‘back to school’ season for children everywhere. Unfortunately, for some it means ‘back to sick’ season. After the summer ends, children and young students jump back in the routine of going to school, where they will share all of their fun summer memories. However, they could also be sharing germs. The sharing of bacteria and viruses can lead to the following illnesses and so much more:

  • the stomach flu
  • pink eye
  • sore throats
  • stuffy noses

Sometimes, taking steps in order to keep your child healthy are small and easy, but they make the biggest difference. Help your child stay well this back to school season with the following tips!

Make sure your child knows how to properly wash their hands

Germs are spread by touch. A child’s hand-washing habits can be a huge factor in whether or not a child becomes sick. Practice hand-washing techniques with your child at home. It is said that an individual should scrub their hands for at least 20 seconds under the sink.

Is sharing actually caring?

Children share so many things throughout a school day. It is important for children to know what is okay to share and what could lead to sickness later on. Kids may think they are being kind by sharing their snacks and supplies. However, objects such as these can hold germs that lead to sickness.

Encourage your child not to share personal items, especially those items that come in contact with the mouth, nose, etc.

Kids need rest too

It is important that your child gets the rest he/she needs. Getting the right amount of sleep can help their body fight off the bad germs that cause sickness. If it seems as if your child is not getting enough rest, check in with them and encourage good night time habits.

Know when to keep your child at home

It is important to give your child every opportunity to learn. However, it is also important to give your child the opportunity to get better when they are sick. Some questions you can ask yourself when deciding if you should send your child to school or not is:

  • Does he/she have a fever?
  • Does he/she seem too sluggish to benefit from a school lesson?
  • Do the symptoms seem like something contagious?

If even one of the answers to these questions is yes, take your child to see a doctor. It is always better to be safe than sorry.

Make sure contact information at child’s school is up to date

Ensure that the school your child is currently going to has the correct contact information for you and/or other friends and family.

In the instance that your child becomes ill at school, the faculty/staff can call you to come pick up your child. It is also smart to provide backup numbers as contact information as well.

Keep your child up to date on immunizations

Make sure your child is up to date on his/her vaccinations before the school year begins. It is always a good idea make your child an appointment with his/her pediatrician, before the start of a new school year to be up to date with your child’s health.

With this, it is also important for our parents and guardians of 5thgraders to OPT IN to scoliosis screening!